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Teacher Talk Advantage Research

"Is there any research that supports this stuff?"

You could get this question from an administrator. I might come from a colleague or a workshop participant. Perhaps a parent of one of your students will ask it. Regardless of who asks it, you now have an answer.

The following material references the newest and the best research that support Teacher Talk Advantage concepts and philosophy. Feel free to use it in support of your use of effective Teacher Talk in your classroom, workshop, book study, or university class. Yes, you can make copies.


Affleck, J., Madge, S., Adams, A., & Lowenbraun, S. (1988). Integrated classroom versus resource model: Academic viability and effectiveness. Exceptional Children, 54, 339-348.

Allen, J.A., Gregory, Al, Mikami, A., Lun J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2013). Observations of effective teacher-student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary. School Psychology Review, 42(1), 76-97.

Andersen, P.A., Anderson, J.F., & Mayton, S.M. (1985). The development of nonverbal communication in the classroom: Teachers' perceptions of students in grades K-12. Communication Education, 34, 292-307.

Armour-Thomas, E., & Allen, B.A. (1993). How well do teachers teach for the promotion of student thinking and learning? Educational Horizons, 71(4) 203-208.

ASCD. (2008). What students want from teachers. Educational Leadership, 66(3), 48-51.

Bachar, E., Canetti, L., Bonne, O., DeNour, A.K., & Shalez, A.Y. (1997). Physical punishment and signs of mental distress in normal adolescents. Adolescence 32, 945-958.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Barber, J.G.,  & Delfabbro, P. (2000). Predictors of adolescent adjustment: Parent-peer relations and parent-child conflict. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17(4), 275-288.

Bickmore, K. (2011). Keeping, making and building peace in school. Social Educations, 75(1), 40-44.

Birch, S.H., & Ladd, G.W. (1996). Interpersonal relationships in the school environment and children's early school adjustment: The role of teachers and peers. In J. Juvonen & K. Wentzel (Eds.), Social Motivation: Understanding children's school adjustment (pp. 199-225). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bodovski, K., Nahum-Shani, I., & Walsh, R. (2013). School Climate and students' early mathematics learning: Another search for contextual effects. American Journal of Education, 119(2), 209-234.

Boggian, A.K., & Katz, P. (1991). Maladaptive achievement patterns in students: The role of teachers' controlling strategies. Journal of Social Issues. 47(4), 35-51.

Borkowski, J.G., Carr, M., Rellinger, E., & Pressley, M. (1990). Self-regulated cognition: Interdependence of metacognition, attributions and self-esteem. In B.F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bracy, N.L. (2011). Student perceptions of high-security school environments. Youth and Society, 43(1), 365-395.

Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame, and reintegration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Brophy, J. (1981). Teacher praise: A functional analysis. Review of Educational Research, 51, 5-32.

Bugental, D.B., & Happaney, K. (2000). Parent-child interaction as a power contest. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(3), 267-282.

Butland, M.J., & Beebe, S.A. (1992). Teacher immediacy and power in the classroom: The application of implicit communication theory. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Miami, FL.

Christophe, V., & Rime, B. (2001). Exposure to the social sharing of emotion: Emotional impact, listener responses and secondary social sharing.  In W.G. Parrott (Ed). Emotions in social psychology: Essential readings (pp. 239-250). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

California State University, (n.d.) Assisting students in distress. Los Angeles: Author. Available: Http://

Canfield, J. (1986). Self-esteem in the classroom: A curriculum guide. Pacific Palisades, CA: Self-Esteem Seminars.

Carpenter, D.H., Flowers, N., & Mertens, S.B. (2004) High expectations for every student. Middle School Journal, 35(5), 64-69.

Cassetta, G. & Sawyer, B. (2013). No more taking away recess and other problematic discipline procedures. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Chang, H.N., & Romero, M. (2008). Present, engaged, and accounted for: The critical importance of addressing chronic absence in the early grads. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty.

Cipani, E., & Schock, K.M. (2010). Functional behavioral assessment diagnosis, and treatment. A complete system for education and mental health settings (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.

City, E.A. (2014). Talking to learn. Educational Leadership, 72(3). 11-16. The Civil Rights Project (2000). Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies. Los Angeles: Author.

Corno, L., Mitman, Al, & Hedges, L. (1981). The influence of direct instruction in student self-appraisals: A hierarchical analysis of treatment and aptitude-treatment interaction effects. American Educational Research Journal, 18, 39-61.

Costello, B., Wachtel, J., & Wachtel, T. (2009). Restorative practice handbook for teachers, disciplinarians and administrators. Bethlehem, PA: International Institute for Restorative Practices.

Costello, B., Wachtel, J. & Wachtel, T. (2010). Restorative circles in schools: Building community and enhancing learning. Bethlehem, PA: International Institute for Restorative Practices.

Cramer, J., & Oshima, T. (1992). Do gifted females attribute their math performance differently than other students? Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 16, 18-35.

Curwin, R.L. & Mendler, A.N. (1997). Beyond obedience: A discipline model for the long term. Reading Today's Youth, 1(4), 21-23.

Davies, P.T., & Cummings, E.M. (1995). Children's emotions as organizers of their reactions to inner adult anger: A functionalist perspective. Developmental Psychology, 31, 677-684.

Deci, E.L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R.M. (2001). Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation in education: Reconsidered once again. Review of Educational Research, 71(1), 1-27.

Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Deci, El, & Ryan, R. (Eds.) (2002. Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Denham, S.A. (1989). Maternal affect and toddlers' social-emotional competence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 368-376.

Denham, S.A., Workman, E., Cole, P.M., Weissbrod, C., Kendziora, K.T., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2000). Prediction of externalizing behavior problems from early to middle childhood: The role of parental socialization and emotion expression. Development & Psychopathology, 12(1), 23-45.

Denham, S.A. (1998). Emotional development in young children. New York: Guillford.

Dunn, J., & Brown, J. (1994). Affect expression in the family, children's understanding of emotions and their interactions with others. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 120-137.

Dweck, C.S. (1975). The role of expectations and attributions in the alleviation of learned helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31, 674-685.

Dweck, C.S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Dweck, C.S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Ballantine.

Eccles, J.S., Wigfield, A., Midgley, C., Reuman, D., MacIver, D., & Feldlaufer, H. (193). Negative effects of traditional middle schools on student's motivation. The Elementary School Journal, 93(5), 553-574.

Eccles, J.S., Wigfield, A., & Schiefele, U, (1998). Motivation to succeed. In B. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3, Social emotional and personality development (5th ed., pp. 1017-1095). New York: Wiley.

Farmer, J.A., & Payne, Y. (1992). Dropping out: Issues and answers. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.

Findley, M.J., & Cooper, H.M. (1983). Locus of control and academic achievement: A literature review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 419-427.

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2014). Better learning through structured teaching; A framework for the gradual release of responsibility (2nd ed.).Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Pumpian, I. (2012). How to create a culture of achievement in your school and classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Fivush, R., Brotman, M.A., Buckner, J.P., & Goodman, S.H. (2000). Gender differences in parent-child emotion narratives. Sex Roles, 42(3-4), 233-253.

Frey, N., Fisher, D., & Everlove, S. (2009). Productive group work: How to engage students, builds teamwork, and promotes understanding. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Friedman, M.I. & Lackey, G.H. (1991). The psychology of human control: A general theory of purposeful behavior. New York: Praeger.

Friedman, M.I. (1993). Taking control: Vitalizing education. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Frieze, I.H. (1976). Casual attributions and information seeking to explain success and failure. Journal of Research in Personality, 10, 293-305.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.

Good, T.L. (1981). Teacher expectations and student perceptions: A decade of research. Educational Leadership, 38, 415-422.

Gottman, J.M., Katz, L.F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Greenberg, M.T., Kusche, C., & Mihalic, S.F. (1998). Blueprints for violence prevention: Promoting alternative thinking strategies. Boulder: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
Hall, P. (2013). A new definition of punishment. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 21(4), 22-26.

Hannafin, R.D., & Sullivan, H.J. (1995). Learner control in full and lean CAI programs. Educational Training, Research & Development, 43(1), 19-29.

Hawkins, J.A. & Berndt, T.J. (1985). Adjustment following the transition to junior high school. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Toronto, Canada.

Hitz, R., & Driscoll, A. (1989). Praise in the classroom. Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education.

Hoffman, S. (2014). Zero benefit: Estimating the effect of zero tolerance discipline policies on racial disparities in school discipline. Educational Policy, 28(1), 69-95.

Howard, P.J. (1994). The owner's manual for the brain: Everyday applications from mind-brain research. Austin, TX: Leornian Press.

Iyengar, S.S., & Lepper, Mark R.  (1999). Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 76(3), 349-366.

Johnston, P. (2004). Choice words: How our language affects children's learning. York, ME: Stenhouse.

Johnston, P.H., Ivey, G., & Faulkner, A. (2011). Talking in class: Remembering what is important about classroom talk. The Reading Teacher, 65(4), 232-237.

Jones, J. (1987). Effects of human relations training on the verbal interaction of classroom teachers and the self-concept of students. ERS Spectrum, 5, 16-21.

Jones, V.F., & Jones, L.S. (1998). Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Juvonen, J. (1996). Self-presentation tactics promoting teacher and peer approval: The function of excuses and other clever explanations. In J. Juvonen & K.R. Wentzel (Eds.), Social motivation: Understanding children's school adjustment (pp. 43-65). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kamins, M.L., & Dweck, C.S. (1999). Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 835-847.

Karofsky, P.S., Zeng, L., & Kosorok, M.R. (2001). Relationship between adolescent/parental communication and initiation of first intercourse by adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28(1), pp. 41-45.

Kaufman, P., Kwon, J.Y., Klein, S., & Chapman, C.D. (1999). Dropout rates in the United States: 1999. Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Statistics.

Kernis, M.H., Brown, A.C., & Brody, G.H. (2000). Fragile self-esteem in children and its associations with perceived patterns of parent-child communication. Journal of Personality, 68(2), 225-252.

Kestenbaum, R.; Farber, E. A.; and Sroufe, L. A. (1989). Individual differences in empathy among preschoolers: Relation to attachment history. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Empathy and Related Emotional Responses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kohn, A. (2010). How to create nonreaders: Reflections on motivation learning, and sharing power. English Journal, 100(1), 16-22.

Landau, B.M., & Gathercoal, P. (2000). Creating peaceful classrooms: Judicious discipline and class meetings. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(6), 450-454.

Langer, E.J. (1983). The psychology of control. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Little, T.D., & Lopez, D.F. (1997). Regularities in the development of children's causality beliefs about school performance across six sociocultural contexts. Developmental Psychology, 33, 65-75.

Lumsden, L. (1999). Student motivation: Cultivating a love of learning. Eugene, OR: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management.

Lunenburg, F.C., & Schmidt, L.J. (1989). Pupil control ideology, pupil control behavior and the quality of school life. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 22, 36-44.

Lunenburg, F.C., & Stouten, J.W. (1983). Teacher pupil control ideology and pupils' projected feelings toward teachers. Psychology in the Schools, 20, 528-533.

Mattanah, J.F. (1999).  Parental encouragement of autonomy enhances children's competence at school in late childhood. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(5-B), 2352.

Matthews, D.B. (1991). The effects of school environment on intrinsic motivation of middle school children. Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 30, 30-36.

Meichenbaum, D., & Biemiller, A. (1998). Nurturing independent learners: Helping students take charge of their learning. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

Meyer, J., Mann, M., & Becker, J. (2011). A five-year follow-up: Teachers: perceptions of the benefits of home visits for early elementary children. Early Childhood Education Journal. 39(3), 191-196.

Michaels, S., O'Connor, M.C., Hall, M.W., & Resnick, L.B. (2010). Accountable talk sourcebook: For classroom Conversation that works. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Institute for Learning.

Miller, D. (1998). Enhancing adolescent competence: Strategies for classroom management.  Belmont: CA: West Wadsworth.

Moberly, D.A., Waddle, J.L., & Duff, R.E. (2005). The use of rewards and punishment in early childhood classrooms. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 25, 359-366.

Morgan, E., Salomon, N., Plotkin, M., & Cohen, R. (2014). The school discipline consensus report: Strategies from the field to keep students engaged in school and out of the juvenile justice system. New York: Council of State Governments Justice Center.

Mortimore, P., & Sammons, P. (1987). New evidence on effective elementary schools. Educational Leadership, 45, 4-8.

Mueller, C.M., & Dweck, C.S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children's motivation and performance. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75 (1), 33-52.

Mullet, J.H. (2014). Restorative discipline: From getting even to getting well. Children and Schools, 36(3), 157-162.
Nowicki, S., & Barnes, J. (1973). Effects of a structured camp experience on locus of control orientation of inner-city children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 122, 247-262.

Payton, J.W., Weissberg, R.., Durlak, J.A., Dymnicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D., Schellinger, K.B., & Pachan, M. (2008). The positive impact of social and emotional learning for kindergarten to eighth-grade students: Findings from three scientific reviews. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.

Peak, L. (1993). Academic effort in international perspective. In T.M. Tomlinson (Ed.), Motivating students to learn: Overcoming barriers to high achievement (pp. 41-62). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.

Peterson, C., Maier, F., Seligman, M.E.P. (1993).  Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pintrich, P.R., & Schunk, D.H. (1996). Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

Powell, K.M., & Rosen, L.A. (1999). Avoidance of responsibility in conduct disordered adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 27(2), 327-340.

Pranis, K. (2003). Peacemaking circles: From crime to community. St. Paul, MN: Living Justice Press.
Purkey, W.W., & Stanley, P.H. (1991). Invitational teaching, learning, and living. Washington, DC: National Education Association.

Raine, A.,  Roger, D.B., & Venables, P.H. (1982). Locus of control and socialization. Journal of Research in Personality, 16(2), 147-156.

Reeve, J. (1996). Motivating others: Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
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Roderick, M., Kelley-Kemple, T., Johnson, D.W., & Beechum, N.O. (2014). Preventable failure: Improvements in long-term outcomes when high schools focus on the ninth-grade year. Chicago: The University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Ryan, R.M., & Grolnick, W.S. (1986). Origins and pawns in the classroom: Self-report and projective assessment of individual differences in children's perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 550-558.

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San Francisco Unified School District. (n.d.). Restorative practices whole-school implementation guide. San Francisco, CA: Author.

Sapon-Shevin, M. (1998). Because we can change the world: A practical guide to building cooperative, inclusive classroom communities. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Scales, P.C., Peter L., Benson, P.L., &  Roehlkepartain, E.C. (2001). Grading grown-ups: American adults report on their real relationships with kids. Minneapolis, MN: Lutheran Brotherhood and Search Institute.

Schaps, E., & Lewis, C.C. (1998). Breeding citizenship through community in school. School Administrator, 55(5), 22-24.
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Schunk, D.H., & Zimmerman, B.J. (1996). Modeling and self-efficacy influences on children's development of self-regulation. In J. Juvonen & K.R. Wentzel (Eds.), Social motivation: Understanding children's school adjustment (pp. 154-180). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sedek, G., & McIntosh, D.N. (1998). Intellectual helplessness: Domain specificity, teaching styles and school achievement. In M. Kofta, G. Weary, & G. Sedek (Eds.), Personal control in action: Cognitive and motivational mechanisms (pp. 419-443). New York: Plenum.

Shapiro, E.S., & Cole, C.L. (1994). Behavior change in the classroom: Self-management interventions. New York: Guilford.
Skiba, R. (2000). Zero tolerance, zero evidence: An analysis of school disciplinary practice. Bloomington, IN: Education Policy Center Indiana University.

Skiba, R.J., & Rausch, M.K. (2006). Zero tolerance, suspension, and expulsion: Questions of equity and effectiveness. In C.M. Evertson & C.S. Weinstein (Eds.). Handbook of classroom management: Research practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 1063-1089). Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Smith, L.R., & Bramblett, G.H. (1981). The effect of teacher vagueness terms on student performance in high school biology. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 18, 353-360.

Smith, L.R., & Land, M.L. (1981). Low-inference verbal behaviors related to teacher clarity. Journal of Classroom Interaction 17, 37-42.

Sohn, D. (1982). Sex differences in achievement self-attribution: An effect-size analysis. Sex Roles, 8, 345-357.
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Stipek, D.J. (1998). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Stipek, D.J., & Gralinski, J.H. (1996). Children's beliefs about intelligence and school performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 397-407.

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Thompson, T. (1997). Do we need to train teachers how to administer praise? Self-worth theory says we do. Learning and Instruction, 7(1), 49-63.

Toner, I.J. (1986). Punitive and non-punitive discipline and subsequent rule-following in young children. Child Care Quarterly, 15, 27-37.

Tuss, P., Zimmer, J., & Ho, H. (1995). Casual attributions of understanding fourth grade students in China, Japan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 408-425.

U.S. Department of Education (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline. Available: http://files.eric.ed.gove/fulltext/ED544743.pdf.

Vail, P.L. (1994). Emotion: The on off switch for learning. New York: Walker.

Wahler, R.G., & Smith, G.D. (1999). Effective parenting as the integration of lessons and dialogue. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 8(2), 135-149.

Wigfield, a. (1988). Children's attributions for success and failure: Effects of age and attention focus. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 76-81.

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Wills, T.A., & Cleary, S.D. (1996). How are social support effects mediated? A test with parental support and adolescent substance use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(5), 937-952.

Wilson, E.A. (1996). Classroom management to encourage motivation and responsibility. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Service.

Wolfgang, C.H. (2001). Solving discipline and classroom management problems: Methods and models for today's teachers (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Weinstein, C.S. (2006). Student and teacher perspectives on classroom management. In C.M. Evertson & C.S. Weinstein (Eds.). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 181-219). New York: Routledge.

Wynne, E.A., & Ryan, K. (1997). Reclaiming our schools: Teaching character, academics and discipline. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Zehr. H. (2002). The little book of restorative justice. Intercourse, PA: Good Books.

Zimmerman, B.J., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 845-862.

Zimmerman, B.J., Greenberg, D., & Weinstein, C.E. (1994). Self-regulated academic study time: A strategy approach. In B.J. Zimmerman & D.H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 181-202). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.